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Stop Handgun Violence and the Debate on Gun-Control

Stop Handgun Violence and the Debate on Gun-Control

There is no doubt that the high profile shootings of Aurora and Newton have reignited public debate over gun control. Senate Democrats are now pushing for gun-control legislation that would have universal background checks as one of its key provisions.

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However, as Senate Democrats and gun-control advocates push for this legislation, the Republican side is skeptical, stating that it makes no sense to add universal background checks when current checks are not enforced. Republican senators Rand Paul, Ted Cruz and Mike Lee have all threatened to filibuster the debate and full floor vote.

The Senate has returned from spring break only today, and no vote has been scheduled yet, but Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid has been expected to bring the legislation to the floor in May next month.

Gun control is certainly a contentious issue in the nation. A recent poll from Quinnipiac University found that last month some 53 percent of Americans supported tougher gun control laws, while 42 percent opposed.

Stop Handgun Violence is a non-profit organization that seeks to prevent gun violence through public awareness, effective law enforcement, education and common sense gun laws. Stop Handgun Violence does not call for a curtailment of the Constitutional right to bear arms, but, rather, advocates for common sense gun legislation that can help save innocent lives.

The following is an interview with John Rosenthal, Founder and Chairman of Stop Handgun Violence, on his thoughts and feelings about the pending gun-control legislation.

In your opinion, does the pending legislation offer the type of gun control you would like to see at the federal level?

Yes! The President’s proposals for universal background checks for all gun sales, limiting the  ammunition magazine size to ten rounds, and renewing a federal ban on military-style assault weapons combined with federal gun trafficking laws that do not exist now and support for law enforcement, will all dramatically save lives in America from preventable gun violence without any inconvenience to law-abiding gun owners.

Sens. Rand Paul, R-Ky., Mike Lee, R-Utah, and Ted Cruz, R-Texas are threatening to filibuster any restrictions on guns, citing the “the American people’s right to bear arm” in a letter to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, what is your response to this move?

I cannot understand how any elected official or American can support unrestricted and undetected access to firearms by criminals, the mentally ill as well as domestic and international terrorists, which is currently allowed by US gun policy. For those senators to continue to support unrestricted access to guns without a background check for criminals is criminal, and an indication of their priorities, which is unrestricted access to the gun industry blood money campaign contributions over public health and safety. They are hijacking our democracy in exchange for blood money campaign contributions at the expense of 87 Americans killed everyday by guns. 87 daily including 8 children under 19, that is a Newtown Elementary School massacre every three days in the US.  

Currently, a Republican alternative gun control legislation is in the works, which is supposed to include tougher laws on illegal gun trafficking, straw purchases, and to increase efforts to keep guns out of the hands of the mentally ill and keep schools safe. How do you feel about this alternative?

It is missing essential pieces. How do you know if someone is mentally ill or criminal unless they have to undergo a background check before they buy a gun? What does making schools safer mean to them?  It means armed vigilantes with assault weapons, including teachers. That does not foster a safe and comfortable learning environment for our children. Of the high profile mass shootings that occurred over the last twenty years, none of those were perpetrated by an adjudicated mentally ill person. Now, we are all capable of mental illness, but the system, the mental health system, protects privacy, and, unless you put all mental health records into a database, including being institutionalized by yourself or family vs the state, which is the current requirement for the mental health record to be included. Unless you run a background check on all gun purchases what’s the point? Garbage in, garbage out. The uniquely unregulated gunindustry and their NRA lobbyists are opposed to a background check for criminals, but without such a background check there is no sense in any other provision. Further, the common denominator in every high profile mass shooting including Newtown, Aurora, Webster and Columbine are large ammunition magazines and assault style pistols and rifles. These have to be banned to have an impact. Police officers are given thirteen to seventeen rounds in their service weapons, why does congress allow 30 – 100 rounds for criminals and the mentally ill without detection? Eleven children in Newtown escaped a classroom when Lanza had to reload. That is eleven children who are alive today because the shooter had to reload his Bushmaster assault rifle with a 30 round magazine. Adam Lanza shot 154 rounds within 4 minutes! Police officers die when they have to reload with thirteen rounds while criminals fire away with 30 to 100 rounds. Duck hunters are limited to three rounds by federal license to protect the duck population, so why does congress allow 30 -100 round magazines to kill the American population?

Do you think that maybe what is truly needed is to simply keep guns out of the hands of those who should not have access to them (e.g. the mentally ill)  rather than make it tougher for law-abiding citizens to purchase firearms?

I am a law-abiding gun owner and I buy my firearms from Federal gun dealers because I can pass a background check and federally licensed dealers are the only gun sellers required to run a background check. But private gun dealers do not have to run a background check and they sell 40 to 50 percent of all guns in the US. How do you know if someone is mentally ill or prohibited from owning a gun or a convicted criminal if you do not have a background check requirement? It is that simple! Who wants to sell guns to the mentally ill or criminals without a background check or detection? The sad answer to that question is Congress, spineless members of Congress who are owned or intimated by the unregulated and greedy gun industry and their blood money campaign contributions. Whose side are they on?  

What are some of the accomplishments of Stop Handgun Violence in the realm of gun-control?

Massachusetts is an urban, industrial state, and we have the most effective gun laws and the first in the nation consumer protection standards for firearms. Massachusetts has the lowest firearm fatality rate of any urban state and second lowest in the nation behind isolated Hawaii! We have proven the gun industry’s worst nightmare: gun laws work! And we simply require safety training, safe storage, universal background checks,  renewable licensing and consumer protection standards, like an automobile, and we prohibit the sale of ammunition magazines greater than 10 rounds and military style assault weapons. The President has modeled much of his federal legislative proposals after the successful Massachusetts model. And as a gun owner none of that, none of the reasonable restrictions in Massachusetts which have proven to reduce gun injury and death by over 40 percent since 1994, negatively impact me as a law-abiding citizen. Our priority in Massachusetts has been to reduce injury and death without banning guns. Federal policy dictated by the gun industry and their spineless puppets in Congress is to increase gun sales without detection, and to increase gun violence and in particular, high profile mass shootings which increases fear and gun sales. Gun violence in turn increase gun industry profits and blood money contributions back to Congress as payback. There is a spike in gun sales after every high profile mass shooting like Columbine, VA Tech, Aurora and Newtown.  The gun industry is uniquely unregulated. I have a toy gun in my hand that has a red dot at the end of the barrel, that is a federal manufacturing requirement so a police officer knows it is a toy. Real guns have no federal regulations on how they are made or marketed, and unlike toy guns which are regulated, real result in 87 deaths a day and remain unregulated. Further Congress gave absolute immunity to the gun industry so they cannot be sued even for marketing and selling guns directly to criminals and terrorists. Two of the guns used at Columbine were marketed as having a finish resistant to fingerprintings! These guns were also bought at a gun show where no background check was required.

If this legislation does not pass, what will be the next step for Stop Handgun Violence?

Massachusetts will improve in all likelihood its gun laws. Connecticut and Colorado already have, but look at the price they paid before they did it. Every year that goes by that there are no changes to our federal gun policy another 30,000 – 40,000 Americans will die from largely preventable gun violence. So I would hope if this Congress does not change national gun laws, we will change Congress in 2014. Hopefully we will throw the bums out. Eventually we need to hold Congress accountable if they continue to refuse to vote in favor of public safety over their own self-preservation in office. But if we wait until 2014 that will be another 60,000 – 70,000 more dead Americans from preventable gun violence. Since 1980, more Americans have died from guns inside the United States than all US servicemen and women killed in all foreign wars combined!

For more information on Stop Handgun Violence, please visit their page. For more information on gun laws and news, please visit our Gun Laws Page.

Interview with John Rosenthal of Stop Handgun Violence, Newton, Massachusetts

All You Need to Know About Gun Laws

All You Need to Know About Gun Laws

Common Gun Laws:
 
Gun laws in America will vary from state to state and differentiate from or are independent to the broader federal firearm laws. Each individual state will distribute specific gun laws based on their particular beliefs and their explicit interpretation of the 2nd Amendment.
 
 
Currently, forty-four states possess a provision in their own state constitutions which is similar to the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution. States that do not possess a specific clause or attachment to the national Constitution will develop statutory civil right laws that contain a provision similar to the 2nd Amendment.
 
 
All individuals who possess or purchase a firearm are subject to the gun laws of the state they are in and not the state in which the permit was issued. 
 
 
The variance that exists between each state’s gun laws will elucidate on certain specifics, such as: the waiting periods implemented before a gun can be acquired, the institution of background checks for gun ownership and the laws that surround the application and procedural process for licenses, permits to purchase, and permits needed to carry a concealed weapon.
 
 
In addition to the variables present, each state will classify weapons based on three distinct categories: hand guns, long guns, and assault weapons.
 
 
The Following list will breakdown the common gun laws by each state and reveal any intricacies or special rulings that may be present.
 
 
Alabama: A permit is not required to purchase firearms in the state of Alabama. Additionally, the state does not require firearm registration nor a license of ownership. A permit; however, is required to carry a concealed handgun in the state.
 
 
Alaska: The state of Alaska does not require a permit to purchase firearms; license of ownership and firearm registration is also not enforced in the state. A permit is; however, required to carry a concealed handgun in the state.
 
 
Arizona: A permit to purchase firearms is not mandated in Arizona, though carrying a concealed handgun in the state does require a permit
 
 
Arkansas: The state of Arkansas does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
California: A permit is not required to purchase firearms in the state but is required to possess an assault weapon. Carrying a concealed weapon will require a license.
 
 
Colorado: The state of Colorado does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Connecticut: The state of Connecticut requires an eligibility certificate or pistol permit is required before purchasing a handgun. Both documents have a valid life of 5 years; the documents will allow unlimited purchases. Carrying a handgun in the state will require an additional license, with a 60-day permit issued by a local law enforcement agent. 
 
 
Delaware: A permit is not required to purchase firearms in the state; however, a permit is required to carry a concealed weapon the state
 
 
Florida: In Florida, a license is needed to carry a concealed firearm, but the state does not implement regulations for purchase or proof of ownership
 
 
Georgia: The state of Georgia does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Hawaii: A permit is needed to acquire a handgun; the permit is valid for 10 days and is needed for each purchase of a handgun. The permit to obtain a handgun is valid for 1 year and may be used an unlimited amount of times for the obtainment of long guns. A license is also needed to carry a handgun in the state.
 
 
Idaho: The state of Idaho does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Illinois: The state of Illinois will require every resident to possess a valid FOID card to purchase all forms of firearms and ammunition. The FOID card is valid for 5 years and no limit is placed on the number of firearms purchased. Illinois state law does not provide for concealed firearm permits.
 
 
Indiana: A handgun license is required in the state for all forms of use. Indiana does not require a permit to purchase firearms
 
 
Iowa: The state of Iowa requires an annually renewed permit to purchase revolvers or pistols, unless the buyer holds a valid permit to carry firearms. 
 
 
Kansas: The state of Kansas does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Kentucky: The state of Kentucky does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Louisiana: The state of Louisiana does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Maine: Maine does not institute regulations for the right to purchase a firearm, but does require buyers to obtain a permit to carry a concealed weapon. 
 
 
Maryland: The state of Maryland requires an annually renewed permit to purchase revolvers or pistols, unless the buyer holds a valid permit to carry firearms. 
 
 
Massachusetts: The state of Massachusetts implements two classes of licenses, which allow the right carry. The class A license is needed for rifles and shotguns while a Class B license is needed for non-large capacity firearms and large capacity rifles and shotguns. The state requires a firearms identification card which permits a user to possess rifles, shotguns, ammunition and Chemical Mace and similar substances. Certain purchases of firearms will require a permit that is valid for 10 days.
 
 
Michigan: The state required a license, which is valid for 10 days, for the purchase of a handgun. A permit is also required for concealed carry.
 
 
Minnesota: The state requires citizens to obtain a transferee permit which is valid for 1 year and can be used to obtain an unlimited number of handguns and assault weapons. A permit is required to carry a concealed weapon in Minnesota.
 
 
Mississippi: The state of Mississippi does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Missouri: The state of Missouri mandates a permit to acquire a firearm; the permit is valid for 30 days and can be used for purchasing only one handgun. The state does not provide concealed firearm permits.
 
 
Montana: The state of Montana does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Nebraska: A transfer certificate is needed to purchase a handgun; the permit is valid for 3 years and can be used for an unlimited number of purchases. State law in Nebraska does not provide for concealed firearm permits.
 
 
Nevada: The state of Nevada does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
New Hampshire: The state of New Hampshire does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
New Jersey: State law requires a permit to purchase a handgun; the permit is valid for 90 days and must be renewed for an additional 90 days. The state requires individuals to obtain a firearms purchaser identification card for the obtainment of long guns. A license issued by the state superior court is required to purchase or possess assault weapons.
 
 
New Mexico: The state of New Mexico does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
New York: Every handgun purchased in the state of New York will require a license, issued by a county or city judicial or a law enforcement officer. The issuing agent will specify conditions for possession and carrying privileges. A license is valid throughout the state; however, New York City will attach additional rules to the obtainment of a license. Gun licenses are valid, but have a fixed duration of 3 years in New York City and 5 years in Nassau, Suffolk and Westchester counties. 
 
 
North Carolina: North Carolina requires a permit that is valid for 5 years, to purchase a handgun. A separate permit is required to carry a concealed handgun. The obtainment of machine guns must be approved through the issuance of a permit by the county sheriff. 
 
 
North Dakota: The state of North Dakota does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Ohio: A permit is not required to purchase firearms in the state and Ohio law does not provide for concealed firearm permits. Those who wish to purchase, possess, carry or use any sawed-off or automatic weapons must apply to the sheriff of a county or a safety director or a police chief of a municipality for a license or temporary permit.
 
 
Oklahoma: The state of Oklahoma does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Oregon: The state of Oregon does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Pennsylvania: The state of Pennsylvania does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Rhode Island: No permit is required to purchase firearms; however, a permit is required to carry a concealed handgun. Individuals under the age of 18 must have a permit to participate in legal firearm activities.
 
 
South Carolina: The state of South Carolina does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Tennessee: The state of Tennessee does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Texas: The state of Texas does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Utah:The state of Utah does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Vermont: Vermont state law does not require a permit to purchase or carry firearms
 
 
Virginia: A permit is not needed to purchase a firearm; however, a permit (issued by a circuit court) is required to legally carry a concealed handgun
 
Washington: The state of Washington does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary. An alien lawfully residing in the U.S. must obtain a license to possess or carry a firearm in the state.
 
 
West Virginia: The state of West Virginia does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Wisconsin: The state of Wisconsin does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
Wyoming: The state of Wyoming does not require a permit to purchase firearms, though a permit to carry a concealed handgun is necessary.
 
 
The Following is a summary of state laws governing waiting periods in regards to the obtainment of guns:
 
 
The following states impose a waiting period for the purchase of all firearms:
 
 
    California: Institutes a waiting period of 10 days
 
 
    Hawaii: Institutes a waiting period of 14 days
 
 
    Illinois: A waiting period of 24 hours for long guns and 72 hours for handguns is required
 
 
    Rhode Island: Institutes a waiting period of 7 days.
 
 
The following states impose waiting periods for handgun purchases and assault weapons
 
 
    Maryland: 7 days
 
 
    Minnesota: 7 days
 
 
The following states impose waiting periods for Handguns only
 
 
    Washington D.C.: 48 hours
 
 
    Florida: 3 days
 
 
    Iowa: 3 days
 
 
    New Jersey: 7 days
 
 
    South Dakota: 48 hours
 
 
    Wisconsin: 48 hours
 
 
The following states impose waiting periods for long guns only
 
 
    Connecticut: 2 weeks
 
 
The Following States do not place a ban on any weapons:
 
 
    Alabama
 
 
    Alaska
 
 
    Arizona
 
 
    Arkansas
 
 
    Colorado
 
 
    Connecticut
 
 
    Delaware
 
 
    Florida
 
 
    Georgia
 
 
    Idaho
 
 
    Indiana
 
 
    Iowa
 
 
    Kansas
 
 
    Kentucky
 
 
    Louisiana
 
 
    Maine
 
 
    Massachusetts
 
 
    Michigan
 
 
    Minnesota
 
 
    Mississippi
 
 
    Missouri
 
 
    Montana
 
 
    Nebraska
 
 
    Nevada
 
 
    New Hampshire
 
 
    New Mexico
 
 
    North Carolina
 
 
    North Dakota
 
 
    Oklahoma
 
 
    Oregon
 
 
    Pennsylvania
 
 
    Rhode Island
 
 
    South Carolina
 
 
    South Dakota
 
 
    Tennessee
 
 
    Texas
 
 
    Utah
 
 
    Vermont
 
 
    Washington
 
 
    West Virginia
 
 
    Wisconsin
 
 
    Wyoming
 
 
The Following states implement a ban on certain types of firearms—labeled in ()
 
 
    California (All forms of Assault weapons are banned in the state)
 
 
    Washington D.C. (New acquisitions of handguns and semi-automatic firearms, which are capable of using a detachable ammunition magazine of more than 12 pounds capacity)
 
 
    Hawaii (Assault Pistols)
 
 
    Illinois (Certain districts outlaw the possession of firearms and other forms of guns)
 
 
    Maryland (Several low-caliber handguns and assault pistols are banned in the state)
 
 
    New Jersey (All assault weapons are banned in the state)
 
 
    New York (All assault weapons are banned in New York City and other jurisdictions)
 
 
    Ohio (Assault weapons are banned in some jurisdictions as well as handguns)
 
 
    Virginia (All guns classified as “Street Sweeper” firearms are banned in the state)
 

AR-15

AR-15

 


What is an AR-15?

 

An AR-15 is 5.56mm semi-automatic rifle that is fed by a magazine and uses gas operation to discharge the empty cartridge and reload the new bullet.  There are multiple sizes of the rifle depending on the manufacturer, and there are a number of add-on items that come along with the rifle.  Some of these add-on items are regulated in the United States, and the sale of the rifle is heavily regulated in some states as well. 

 

The rifle was originally designed for U.S. military for the following reasons:

 

·         the rifle is lightweight and easy to manufactur

·         the rifle allows for a high velocity round and is easily adapted for other rounds

·         the design allows for a large amount of add-on features

·         fires accurately and reloads quickly because of gas piston system

·         is capable of firing a large magazine

·         the gun comes with a butt stock and a pistol grip for more control

 

Recent Controversy over AR-15

 

The gun was used by James Eagan Holmes during the pseudo-commando mass shooting at the Century move theater in Aurora, Colorado on July 20, 2012.  Holmes dressed in tactical clothing and set off tear gas during the midnight screening of the film The Dark Knight Rises.  He killed 12 people and injured 58 more people.  He used Smith & Wesson’s stile of the AR-15 called an M&P15, and he also used a 12-gauge shotgun and Glock 22 handgun. 

 

Regulation of the AR-15

 

There is not federal law that controls the use of the rifle.  The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, which incorporated the Assault Weapons Ban of 1994, banned the manufacturing and importing of the rifle along with other assault rifles, but the ban ended in 2004.  The regulation of the rifle is now left up to the states, and several state regulations are described below:

 

California

Penal Code section 12276 subdivisions (e) and (f) made it unlawful to sell an AK or AR-15 series rifle after August 16, 2000 in the state of California.  Certain features of the weapon may be removed to declassify it as an assault weapon, but it’s still illegal to sell in California.  It is legal to possess the weapon in California if it was possessed before December 31, 1999 and registered with the state before December 31, 2000.

People who owned the rifle were required to register the weapon with the Department of Justice by January 23, 2001.  It is illegal to pawn the rifle or inherit the rifle in California as well.  Additionally, you cannot leave the assault rifle at a gunsmith unless they hold a California Assault Weapons permit. 

 

Colorado

In January of 2007, the Denver City Council passed a law that modified the city’s assault weapon ban.  It is legal to own an AR-15 or other assault rifles if they do not contain a magazine with 21 or more rounds. 

 

Other states have regulations for the assault rifle as well.

 

Sources: https://oag.ca.gov/firearms/regagunfaqs#3

TEC-9

TEC-9

 


What is a TEC-9?

 

A TEC-9 (TEC DC-9) is an “assault pistol” that was developed and manufactured Intratec Firearms.   The gun is also known as an AB-10 if it was manufactured after 1994.  The gun has a reputation of being used in numerous mass killings and crimes in the United States because it has a large magazine and is fairly cheap.   Many criminals have converted the fun into a fully automatic weapon.

 

The weapon serves little purpose to a professional shooter because it’s heavy and its accuracy is unreliable. 

 

Gun Characteristics

 

The gun was designed by George Kellgren and manufactured by Intratec.  The original was manufactured up to 1990, and the DC9 was manufactured until 1994. The gun fires 9mm rounds and is semi-automatic and blowback-operated.  The feed systems include a 10, 20, 32, or 50-round magazine, and a 72-round magazine was also made available for the gun as well.  The fun is effective up to 50 meters. 

 

Mass Killings and the TEC-9

 

The gun has been used in multiple mass shootings in the United States, and its notorious reputation placed it on the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban.  The gun was involved in the following mass shootings:

 

101 California Street Shootings

On July 1, 1993, Gian Luigi Ferri, a failed businessman, walked into an office building at 101 California Street.  Ferri had installed hellfire triggers on a pair of TEC-9 pistols to make the nearly automatic, and he killed 8 people and injured six during the shooting.  Ferri eventually committed suicide as he was surrounded by police. 

 

Columbine High School

On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed 13 people and injured 21 people before they committed suicide.  Eric Harris used a 12-guage Savage-Springfield 67H pump-action shotgun along with a Hi-Point 995 Carbine 9 mm carbine.  Dylan used a 9 mm TEC-9 and a 12-guage Stevens 311D double-barreled sawed-off shotgun. 

 

Legislation Used to Ban the TEC-9

 

After Patrick Edward Purdy used a Type 56 Assault Rifle to kill five children and wound another 29 children at the Cleveland Elementary School in Stockton, California, the state of California passed the Roberti-Roos Assault Weapons Control Act of 1989 that banned certain assault weapons including the TEC-9. 

 

The handgun and 19 other firearms were also banned in the United Stated in 1994 after the Federal Assault Weapons Ban, but the ban expired in 2004. 

 

A case was also brought against Intratec after the plaintiff argued the manufacturer was liable for the 101 California Street Shootings.  The case made its way to the Supreme Court in 2001, but the Court concluded Intratec was not responsible for the attack. 

 

Conclusion

 

Multiple attempts have been made to control access to assault weapons, but pseudo-commando type shootings are still occurring in the United States.  Some of these shootings are enacted with the use of legal handguns and weapons.  So, how do we stop mass shootings if gun laws in the United States cannot prevent such shootings?  The answer seems to lie in detecting of a pseudo-commando before the crime occurs. 

ITAR

ITAR

ITAR: The International Traffic in Arms Regulations


The International Traffic in Arms Regulations, or ITAR, is a group of regulations by the United States government that are in place in order to control the import and export of different defense-related services and articles that are found on the United States Munitions List.
ITAR includes the provisions seen in Title 22 Chapter I Subchapter M in the Code of Federal Regulations, called the Arms Export Control Act. The purpose of this division is to help safeguard United States national security while furthering foreign policy objectives set by the United States.
The regulations found in ITAR in practice says that material and information that relates to military related technologies or defense can only be shared with United States person unless the Department of States gives authorization or an exemption for certain circumstances is used.
ITAR was put into law during the Cold War in 1976 with the intent of implementing control over unilateral arms export reflecting those imposed placed by on Eastern Bloc countries 
Since then, the United States government has dramatically enforced certain activity, particularly when the United States Department of state took control of satellite export regulations. Since 1999, they have published 29 different instances of Consent Agreements, while only 12 had been published in the 22 years before.
A United States person or organization can potentially face large fines by providing foreign persons with ITAR protected services, defense articles, or technical data. ITAR Is not applicable to information that is related to general mathematical, scientific, or engineering principles found in colleges or schools along with information that is legitimately available in the public domain.
ITAR is also not applicable to basic system descriptions or general market information. However it is important to be cautious in these areas as there have been circumstances where professors have breached the regulations due to foreign graduate students.
Since 1999, the United States government has significantly increased enforcement against individuals and organizations responsible for a breach of ITAR. For example, a $100 million penalty was given to ITT due to their unauthorized Retransfer of certain night vision technology in 2007.
In most of these cases, the penalty against a corporate entity includes a compliance component that is mandatory. It requires the entity to use funds for compliance measures, such as appointing many Internal Special Compliance Officers. Penalties can also make a party submit to external audit. On a far extreme, a party can be debarred from any future exporting for a given period of time. 
The United States government also has a policy that imposes a positive obligation on American companies saying that they must fully disclose any ITAR breaches to the government. Not doing so may significantly increase the penalties applied by the government. 

Ammunition Explained

Ammunition Explained

Background
Firearms are a powerful tool that ultimately exist for the purpose of self-defense, survival, and in this day and age, hunting and sporting practices as well. However, a firearm is rendered useless without any ammunition. Ammunition can be defined simply as the bullets or projectiles that are discharged from a firearm. However, it is important to understand the many components of and how it works in order to truly have an understanding of firearms and guns in general.
Being such a crucial component to the firearm, a gun user should be able to identify the various components of a cartridge and how it functions to essentially reach its purpose of hitting a target. It also important to know what ammunition is and how it works in order to be fully aware of the potential dangers that may occur in the mishandling of ammunition, and become better aware of gun safety in general. 

Specific Laws
As laws exists for the regulation of firearms, it is common sense that laws would also exist for the regulation of ammunition. The regulation of ammunition is a federal and state imposed legislation. The federals currently in place give a basic outline of those who are not allowed to purchase, possess, or carry any kind of ammunition. Generally speaking, those that have felony conviction, a history of violence, and/or under the age of 18 are all prohibited from ammunition. This serves as the basic federal guidelines to firearms as well. However, the state-imposed regulations tend to be more specific and further restrict the laws as written by the federal government.
Several states have laws that limit the sell and purchase of specific type of ammunition to a specific age requirement, other states expand on the list of disqualifying factors that would bar individuals from buying or owning ammunition. As with firearm laws, state laws regarding ammunition are often extremely specific, and at times, can be confusing. It is important for individuals that have an interest or own firearms to be informed on their perspective state’s legislature regarding ammunition as well. After all, a firearm is useless without ammunition, and an individual has the responsibility of knowing and adhering to state and local laws. 

Purchasing Ammunition
The purchasing of ammunition may seem to be easier to accomplish than purchasing an actual firearm. Without a firearm, a bullet is essentially harmless, so acquiring them would probably not be as difficult. This idea is one that is based entirely on misguided though and misinformation. The fact is that ammunition is just as strictly regulated as are firearms.
Though many states do not require a proper permit for the purchase of firearms, the law imposes certain assurances so that only qualified individuals may buy a weapon. The same is with ammunition; there are state and federal laws that restrict the sale or possession of ammunition to individuals that are not qualified. Furthermore, certain states impose their own restrictions, such as raising the age requirement, limiting the type of ammunition, and limiting ammunition capacity of magazines. Individuals must fully comply with the state and federal regulations and should make it their responsibility to be full aware and understand what these regulations and rules are and how they apply to them.

Ease of Buying Certain Ammunition at Sporting Good Stores
As it stands, there are regulations regarding the sell of ammunition that are specified under federal and state law. Generally speaking, federal laws serve mostly as a guideline, allowing states to improve or further restrict the imposed provisions, as long as they are not in violation or infringement of federal laws.
Buying ammunition at a sporting goods store is simple as providing verification of age; 18 to purchase shotgun and rifle ammunition, and 21 to purchase handgun ammunition. Currently, there is no background checks conducted to purchase ammo. Therefore, there is a relative ease that can be found by purchasing ammunition at sporting good store or famous chain such as Modell’s or Dick’s Sporting Goods. It offers convenience and quite possibly, lower prices as well. However, it has been questioned that such relatively ease may allow ammunition to fall in to the hands of those who may not be qualified to purchase or possess ammunition.
Recently, there has been political debate regarding imposing a new system for buying ammunition to compensate for the lack of instant background criminal checks. California has been one of the first to introduce such provision in to law. It is unsure if this will deter people such as felons from attempting to buy ammunition at sporting goods stores, but the decision for enacting the policy is already being met with considerable opposition.

Components of Ammunition
Ammunition is one the most essential components of a firearm–and arguably the most important. Though what most people call a “bullet” is generally such a small object–comparable to the size of a standard AA battery in conventional firearms–there are amazingly complex in their structure and internal functions. The fact that most people use the term “bullet” in referring to this type of ammunition, it is technically incorrect; a bullet is only but a component of ammunition. The are basic components in ammunition used in firearms.
They are the cartridge–which is what most call a “bullet”–primer, propelling agent, rim, and casing. Though the components will vary depending on the type of ammunition, these are what can be considered as the basic components in conventional firearm ammunition.
Aside from having various components, the components themselves are constructed in various ways using different types of materials depending on the intended purpose or use of the ammunition. There different types of bullets, propellants, and primers depending on the firearm employed and the overall purpose of the ammunition. It is often overlooked by non-firearm users and firearm users how intricate the function is of a weapon’s minute, but deadly killing agent.


Types of Ammunition
Just as there many different types of firearms, there are just as many and possibly more, different types of ammunition. Types of ammunition can vary greatly and often depend on what the ammunition is being for and what the intended purpose is. Ammunition types vary greatly simply in terms of scale and scope. There is firearm ammunition, naval ammunition, ordnance ammunition, air craft ammunition, and tank ammunition just to list a few.
However, in civilian terms and purpose, the concern about the different ammunition types will refer to small firearms, such as shotguns, rifles, and handguns. Even at this scale, the types of ammunition available is quite astounding. In seeking to purchase ammunition, an individual must be aware of several aspects in order to choose the correct ammunition for his/her firearm. Commonly, the caliber or gauge and intended use are considered during the purchasing process. It is also important to be aware of any regulations that may exist regarding certain types of ammunition, so as to not infringe upon local, state, or federal laws.

Illegal and Controversial Ammunition
There is much heated debate regarding the Second Amendment of the Bill of Rights in the United States. The opposing sides, those who want gun rights, and those who want gun control, are currently engaged in a battle of political wit and words that has been in a perpetual stalemate since the whole thing began. Regardless of political allegiance, the fact is that there are rules and regulations currently in place by federal and state laws regarding firearms. This is also expanded to include firearm ammunition as well. The most controversial and often debated types of ammunition are armor piercing bullets and hollow tip or hollow point bullets.
Some states have already taken proper measure to prohibit and outlaw armor piercing ammunition. Hollow points, while not legally barred, as still the subject of debate by people defending the stance that they are safer than ordinary bullets, while those attacking the aspect that they cause more harm when used on people and animals. 

Gun Holster Purpose

Gun Holster Purpose

A gun holster is basically a device that allows a person to carry, hold, or restrict movement of a handgun. Gun holsters are commonly used where the wearer may need quick access to the firearm, or for the purpose of concealed carry, as permitted by law.
A gun holster is design with a few important factors in mind. Firstly, a gun holster must protect the firearm adequately. Secondly, it must allow the firearm to fit securely within, with out constricting the ability to draw the weapon or return it to the holster. Lastly, by its design, a holster is supposed to allow for easy access so an individual can withdraw the weapon with one and hand, and also return it safely with one hand. An important facet to consider is that holster are also designed with the wearer in mind; a holster that may function properly for one individual may not do so for another.
The type of holster worn is typically bound to personal choice, for the only possible exception being when it is issued for law enforcement or military personnel. Therefore, there is quite the number of gun holsters available for firearm users. Not only do they differ in type and function, but also in the type of materials used and what kind of firearm they are to house within. 
By the common populace, a holster simply holds a gun, but is known that where the gun is located on the person may often differ. This is due to holster being design with practicality and functionality in mind. Gun holsters are typically located around a person’s waistband, or belt. That is the most common associated location for a firearm holster.
The most commonly used holster, as per law enforcement and military, is the outside the waistband holster or belt holster. In the industry, this type of holster is commonly referred to as an OWB holster. An inside the waistband, or IWB, holster is also made. This weapon is designed to be attached inside the wearer’s pants, which offers more concealment.
Shoulder holster are also another common type frequently used. It is worn in similar fashion as a backpack, and the holster itself is attached to either the right or left side of the person. Some offer the option of dual holsters, one firearm at each side. Pocket holster are made for gun itself to be carried inside a pocket, and is generally reserved for smaller weapons to act as backup for a main weapon.
Another common holster used for backup firearms is the ankle holster because it easily conceals the weapon Thigh holsters are slowly becoming the new accepted standard. They are secured at the thigh, at or near where the arm naturally hangs for the user. This type of holster offers quick access and withdrawal capabilities.
It is often employed by law enforcement or military personnel that may require the use of tactical wear that may impede the use of waistband holster. Other holsters, such as the groin and lower back holsters, are still used today but quite rarely. Though both offer good concealment capabilities, they have been recently found to possible cause injury in close quarter combat situations if the wearer falls or takes some sort of impact at the location of the holster.
Many law enforcement agencies do not allow back holsters to be worn by their officers because of the risk of spinal injury. The types of holsters available make it quite easy for the wearer to personalize his options depending on need and comfort. However, it is important to note that since many of these holsters are made with the ability to conceal in mind, it is important to check the local and state regulations concerning the carrying of concealed weapons and abide by those laws and regulations.
Gun holsters themselves can be categorized by their use. Gun holsters are usually categorized as follows:
Duty Holsters: Typically worn by law enforcement personnel
Tactical Holsters: Typically worn by military personnel
Concealment Holsters: Typically worn by plain-clothes officials and private users
Sporting Holsters: Typically worn for shooting sports and hunting situations
 
Depending on the type of holster, the materials used to make the holster will be chosen depending on how materials themselves will allow for better functionality of the gun holster. Duty holsters are typically made of leather, plastic, or nylon, and are designed to be open carry.
These holsters will typically be waistband holsters and used for service handguns. A key feature of duty holsters is that they often also vary on the security or retention of the weapon itself. This is designed so as an officer can not be disarmed by suspect. Tactical holsters, also referred to as Military holsters, are typically made out of plastic or nylon for purpose of being lighter in weight. It is not uncommon for the tactical holster to be designed in camouflage.
Typically, these holsters have minimum retention when compared to Duty holsters, though some may offer the option of a flap to cover the weapon entirely for protection purposes. Concealment holsters, as their name implies, are designed to be hidden from plain view. They are designed to be lightweight and comfortably worn, and vary depending on where the holster is to be carried on the person. Concealment holsters often use more surface area than the actual weapon may need so as to prevent any outlines of the gun to be perceived, thus making it discernible.
Materials used can range from leather, nylon, plastic, and synthetic materials. Sporting holsters are the most function-oriented designed holsters for they serve a specific purpose depending on the sporting event that employs them. These are the most specialized holsters available, and often serve the purpose of providing advantages within the realms of legality as per the specific event. Hunting holsters are often unique because they often must consider extra components of a firearm, such as telescopic sights or collapsible shoulder stocks.
Because gun holsters are designed based on purpose, functionality, personalization, and comfort, it is important in considering which type of holster suits the needs of an individual. Safety, concealment, durability, draw ease, retention, adjust-ability, and cost are all factors that should be considered before purchasing any kind of gun holster. Gun holsters are designed with the user in mind, and therefore, the user must contemplate how the firearm will be used and what kinds of situations or environments the employment of the firearm can or may occur.
Gun safety issues and practices may vary from state to state. It is important to always be aware of the state gun laws that exist in order to comply with the necessary regulations and legislation. Because state gun laws have a tendency to change without notice, it is important for gun owners to constantly check with the state laws in order to prevent any particular legal implications in the future.

Understanding Gun Safes

Understanding Gun Safes

Gun Safety-Gun Safes
One aspect of gun safety that has proven be just as important as the handling of the firearms themselves is storage. Safely storing a gun is essential in assuring that no one unqualified or inexperienced can gain access to the weapons.
There are various safety precautions that a person may consider when storing a firearm. Many may consider a trigger lock device, which does not allow for the triggering mechanism to engage and discharge the weapon.
Another common consideration is a gun safe. Gun safes provide a great choice for storing firearms, along with any other firearm related items, such as ammunition and gun components. While a trigger lock restricts the firing of the weapon, a gun safe restricts access to the firearm altogether. A gun safe is a secure and protective case or container used to store firearms. More often than not, gun safes allow for the storage of multiple guns, as well as ammunition and components. This option is also a reason why gun safes offer a great storage space because they are typically large enough to hold more than just one gun, opposed to a locked gun case.
Depending on the needs of the individual, a gun safe may be in plain view, or hidden for added security. Their overall purpose is to simply not allow access to firearms to those people who are not qualified to use firearms, or to fall on the hands of those not properly trained in using and handling firearms–i.e.: children. Depending on the needs of the firearm user, there are a variety of options that exist when considering obtaining a gun safe.
Many safes are basic enough to provide for a locking mechanism to secure the firearms from unauthorized users, but others are take into consideration the protection of the firearms themselves from the elements. Also, gun safes also come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all manufactured to cater to the specific needs of the firearm owner. Depending if the owner wants added security or if the protection of the weapons is crucial, he/she may want to consider obtaining a high-end gun safe.
A basic gun safe may typically be made out of steel, very much like personal safe boxes, and provide for a locking mechanism normally consisting of either a combination lock or key, or sometimes both. The user can often calibrate the combination code of his/her choosing in to lock, allowing only those with the knowledge of the code able to open the gun safe. A key-lock mechanism seems to be self-explanatory.
However, the basic flaw with these two options is that a combination code can often be figured out or found, and a key may fall into the wrong hands if itself is not a secured. That is why the option of having both mechanisms employed is available. It offers the added security of having two security systems. Furthermore, this type of system typically requires that in order for the combination dial to be engaged, it must be unlocked by the key. The availability of the system is further advanced by electronic locks.
Electronically locked gun safes may differ in several ways, but it is also common for mechanical lock to be used in conjunction of the electric lock for added security. On the high-tech end of the spectrum, some top-of-the-line gun safes offer security locks that are voice operated, meaning that it only recognizes the sound waves of the user, and the specific password implemented in order to open the safe door. Others also offer fingerprint identification as a means to lock and open the gun safe. These are arguably the most safe in regards of ease of accessibility protection. 
Aside from the locking mechanism options to be considered, the actual construction of the safe itself is important. High-quality steel seems to be the most commonly used in modern gun safes. However, the grade of steel construction can prove to be a factor as well. The thick the steel, the added protection from an individual seeking to break in to the safe. Some grades of steel also offer fire and water protection, which would prove to be a wanted quality among those who seek to protect their firearms.
Gun safes with water protection are also important when considering the possibility for rust. Some offer heated systems for all safes with fire and water protection in order to keep unwanted moisture from collecting within the safe and thus providing an optimum environment for rust to form. 
Depending on the need of the individual, some companies may offer the option of providing walk-in gun safes, which also may double as panic rooms. These types of gun safes are typically the top of the line and are often quite costly, so they are not as common as typical container-style gun safes. Gun safes themselves can be constructed to be hidden from sight, such as in existing furniture or closet spaces. This allows for extra security, for only the people within the property can know about the location of the gun safe.
In recent times, gun safes have been a matter of debate when it comes to young children. Though they exist essentially to protect unauthorized users such as children the access to firearms, the gun safes themselves may prove to be a hazard. The argument stands that a young child may be able to get locked inside a gun safe if left unattended or unlocked, thus suffocating the child. However, it is at discretion of the parent to be aware of such a situation and provide for the proper supervision of the child and gun safe to prevent such an occurrence.
The other argument poses the threat of a young child possibly tipping the safe over and having it land on him/her. Though this may prove to be an extreme situation because the gun safes are often too heavy even for a full-grown adult to maneuver with ease, it may have some validity. Again, it is up to the gun safe owner to provide for the necessary precautions to not allow these situations to occur, regardless of their improbability. 
Gun safety issues and practices may vary from state to state. It is important to always be aware of the state gun laws that exist in order to comply with the necessary regulations and legislation. Because state gun laws have a tendency to change without notice, it is important for gun owners to constantly check with the state laws in order to prevent any particular legal implications in the future.

The Public Health Crisis that is Gun Violence – The Violence Policy Center on the Importance of Gun Control

The Public Health Crisis that is Gun Violence - The Violence Policy Center on the Importance of Gun Control

This month, the Senate blocked a plan for expanded background checks on gun purchases. This plan was supposed to extend background checks to those who purchase their firearms online or at gun gun shows, but failed to receive the 60 votes needed to pass in the Senate, receiving only 54 votes in favor and 46 against. Sen. Dianne Feinstein, arguably one of the fiercest gun control advocates in the Senate, proposed a ban on military-style assault weapons that also failed to pass with only 40 votes in favor and 60 against it.

(More on  News at LAWS.com, contact Adam for interviews “adama@laws.com”)

The background check amendment, which was drafted by Democratic Senator Joe Manchin of West Virginia and Republican Senator Pat Toomey of Pennsylvania, was seen by many, including President Obama, as the needed compromise that would help to pass gun-control legislation after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting perpetrated by Adam Lanza that left 20 children and six adults dead. It was hoped that this amendment would offer the compromise needed to pass in the Senate. However, most Republicans and four Democrats from gun-friendly states voted against it.

Gun control and gun rights are certainly contentious issues in our country that continue to divide public opinion. Opponents of the Manchin-Toomey amendment have emphasised that it only served to infringe upon the right to bear arms guaranteed by the Second Amendment and would do little to keep guns out of the hands of the mentally ill and criminals. Proponents of the bill say that these types of background checks are vital to saving innocent lives. Every year, 30,000 Americans are killed by guns in homicides, suicides or unintentional shootings.
The Violence Policy Center (VPC) is a national, non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that aims to end the yearly death toll and injury from guns through research, education, collaboration and advocacy. The VPC points to the fact that firearms are the only consumer product not regulated for health and safety by a federal agency. The VPC believes that this exception is what has led the gun industry to be able to increase the lethality of firearms. Applying consumer safety standards to guns, the VPC believes, will greatly reduce gun violence.

The following is an interview with Josh Sugarmann, Executive Director of the VPC, on his thoughts and feelings on the failure of the gun control legislation to pass and the work of the VPC in the realm of gun control.

1.  How do you feel about the defeat of the gun-control legislation in the Senate?

The Senate votes are the latest example of the unique power that the NRA holds over the U.S. Congress.  The battle for effective gun laws will not be won until the vast majority of Americans who want to reduce gun violence make their voices heard:  not just in the wake of the most recent tragedy, but in an ongoing effort that reflects the all-too-high price meted out in gun death and injury each day in our nation.

2. What message would you send to those in the Senate who voted against this legislation?

From the assassination attempt of then-Representative Gabrielle Giffords, to the shooting death of Trayvon Martin, to the movie theatre shooting in Aurora, to the tragedy in Newtown, Americans are demanding action on gun violence to protect their communities.  And while these tragic and horrific events focus the nation’s attention on the issue, each year guns claim more than 31,000 lives in homicides, suicides, and unintentional deaths.  At the same time, states with the most lax gun laws and higher rates of gun ownership have the highest gun death rates–and many of the Senators who voted against the gun bills are from states with the highest rates of gun death [https://www.vpc.org/press/1302gundeath.htm].  In addition, there is a growing awareness that today’s NRA has become nothing less than a trade association for the firearms industry, which contributes tens of millions of dollars to the organization [https://www.vpc.org/press/1104blood.htm].  Just as there will inevitably be future gun tragedies that grip our nation, there will be future votes to stop them.  It is time for our federal policymakers to listen to the majority of the American public that wants effective gun policies that will save lives, not just the gun industry-funded arguments of the NRA.    

3. How do you think the gun-control movement should move forward from this?

Historically, the gun violence debate has been defined, and all too often decided, on the actions of a small, yet vocal, pro-gun base.  Most Americans don’t own guns, and the percentage of American households that do has been shrinking for decades [https://www.vpc.org/press/1104norc.htm].  In the wake of the Newtown mass shooting and the Senate votes, we are seeing a new, engaged, gun violence prevention movement forming:  one that will speak for the majority of Americans who want effective local, state, and federal policies to stop gun violence.  This movement must grow and expand.   With the focus on the Senate votes, less attention has been paid to the successful state measures–for example, assault weapon bans in  Connecticut and New York and a ban on high-capacity ammunition magazines in Colorado—that have been passed in the wake of the Newtown tragedy.  State efforts must continue as they will drive federal policy.  Overall, the changing nature of the gun industry itself—an abandonment of traditional sporting arms and an embrace of increasingly lethal military style weaponry at the expense of public safety—must continue to be a focus of our movement’s public education activities.  Most people, if they knew, would be shocked at what the gun industry has become.  

4. What is the next step now for the Violence Policy Center now that this legislation has been blocked in the Senate?

The VPC works to reduce gun injury and death in America by approaching firearms violence from a public health perspective and illustrating the need to hold firearms to the same health and safety standards as other consumer products.  To this end, the VPC:  conducts research on the gun industry, regulatory approaches and firearms violence; develops public policy options and offers analyses of proposals that seek to reduce violence; conducts public education activities through the news media and various organizations; educates opinion leaders and policy makers; supplies technical and policy support to national, state, and local gun violence prevention organizations; and, works to empower and engage organizations not traditionally part of the gun violence debate, but that represent constituencies affected by firearms violence.  The VPC will continue these efforts with the goal of aiding and supporting the growing movement to prevent gun violence.   

5.     What are some of the accomplishments of the Violence Policy Center?

Past VPC policy accomplishments include: identifying, de-funding, and keeping de-funded a multimillion dollar federal program that rearmed thousands of convicted, often violent, felons at taxpayer expense; reducing the number of Type 1 federally licensed gun dealers from a quarter million in 1992 to less than 53,000 today; introducing, through its publication Cease Fire: A Comprehensive Strategy to Reduce Firearms Violence, the concept of comprehensive health and safety regulation of the firearms industry as the most effective approach to reducing firearms violence; first identifying the firearms trafficking threat posed by gun shows; being a leader of the coalition that led to the enactment of the Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban, which bars individuals convicted of misdemeanor domestic violence crimes from possessing firearms; helping craft policies in Massachusetts and California placing firearms under consumer health and safety regulation; and, first exposing the threat posed by 50 caliber sniper rifles, leading to their being banned in California and legislation introduced in other states.

For more information on the Violence Policy Center, please visit their page. For more information on gun laws and news, please visit our Gun Laws Page.

Interviewed with Josh Sugarmann of the Violence Policy Center, Washington, DC

All You Need to Know About Rifles

All You Need to Know About Rifles

 
 
Rifle background
 
 
Rifles are very similar to shotguns, in that they are both fired from the shooters shoulder and have similar accuracy. Rifles can be of any caliber and the purpose of the weapon will likely dictate the caliber of ammunition. For example, hunting may require a low caliber ammunition.
 
 
Sniper rifle
 
 
Sniper rifles are highly accurate, even at great distances. Advancements in technology have allowed the telescopic sights to allow snipers to see great detail from huge distances. The weapons is also able to hit any target that can be seen in the scope.
 
 
Hunting rifles
 
 
Hunting rifles are available with extras, such as telescopic sights. These improvements allow hunters to be a greater distance from the game, while ensuring accuracy when they fire the weapon. However, each state has differing laws as to which type of hunting rifles are permitted in the state.
 
 
Rifles for sale
 
 
Rifles for sale  may be found online, at gun shows, through private dealers and at gun shops. Regardless of where the gun is purchased, both the buyer and the seller must comply with federal and local gun laws. The legality of owning specific types of guns, such as assault riles, can vary from state to state.
 
 
Semi automatic rifles vs. bolt action rifles
 
 
Semi automatic rifles are those which self load ammunition as the operator pulls the trigger. Bold action rifles are often single shot rifles, which require the operator to reload each time a shot is fired.